During the first half of this period c.
The Middle Ages The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The period is often considered to have its own internal divisions: During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, political, social, economic, and cultural structures were profoundly reorganized, as Roman imperial traditions gave way to those of the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms in the former Western Empire.
New forms of political leadership were introduced, the population of Europe was gradually Christianized, and monasticism was established as the ideal form of religious life. These developments reached their mature form in the 9th century during the reign of Charlemagne and other rulers of the Carolingian dynastywho oversaw a broad cultural revival known as the Carolingian renaissance.
In the central, or high, Middle Ages, even more dramatic growth occurred.
The period was marked by economic and territorial expansion, demographic and urban growth, the emergence of national identity, and the restructuring of secular and ecclesiastical institutions.
It was the era of the CrusadesGothic art and architecture, the papal monarchythe birth of the universitythe recovery of ancient Greek thought, and the soaring intellectual achievements of St. It has been traditionally held that by the 14th century the dynamic force of medieval civilization had been spent and that the late Middle Ages were characterized by decline and decay.
Europe did indeed suffer disasters of war, famine, and pestilence in the 14th century, but many of the underlying social, intellectual, and political structures remained intact. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europe experienced an intellectual and economic revival, conventionally called the Renaissancethat laid the foundation for the subsequent expansion of European culture throughout the world.
Many historians have questioned the conventional dating of the beginning and end of the Middle Ages, which were never precise in any case and cannot be located in any year or even century. Some scholars have advocated extending the period defined as late antiquity c.
Still others argue for the inclusion of the old periods Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation into a single period beginning in late antiquity and ending in the second half of the 16th century.During the High Middle Ages Poland emerged as a kingdom.
It decided to bond itself with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, confirmed by the Union of Krewo and later treaties, leading to a personal union in The rise of market exchange, and the related competition, was the main dynamic force of the later Middle Ages and the motor behind social changes.
This chapter shows how its force was refracted by the regional prism of power and property, resulting in a sharpening of the distinctions between regions. Generally, the medieval era is divided into three periods: the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.
Like the Middle Ages itself, . In France, the High Middle Ages was marked by the slow emergence of a central monarchy. Germany, on the other hand, did not develop a strong central government. No discussion of the political developments of the period would be complete without discussing the Crusades.
Economic and Social Changes during the High Middle Ages Overview; The High Middle Ages was a period of change that shaped European development, caused by the interactions with other cultures in Eurasia and the Mediterranean. Many of the basic social and political patterns,most known with European history were formed during this era.
. During the High Middle Ages Poland emerged as a kingdom. It decided to bond itself with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, confirmed by the Union of Krewo and later treaties, leading to a .