Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times.
A survey of non-verbal codes is not manageable here, and the interested reader should consult some of the classic texts and specialist guides to the literature e. In the context of the present text a few examples must suffice to illustrate the importance of non-verbal codes.
Social conventions for 'appropriate' dress are explictly referred to as 'dress codes'. In some institutions, such as in many business organizations and schools, a formal dress code is made explicit as a set of rules a practice which sometimes leads to subversive challenges.
Particular formal occasions - such as weddings, funerals, banquets and so on - involve strong expectations concerning 'appropriate' dress. In other contexts, the wearer has greater Contextual positioning of photographic media photography essay of what to wear, and their clothes seem to 'say more about them' than about an occasion at which they are present or the institution for which they work.
The way that we dress can serve as a marker of social background and subcultural allegiances. This is particularly apparent in youth subcultures. Subsequent British youth subcultures such as mods and rockers, skinheads and hippies, punks and goths have also had distinctive clothes, hairstyles and musical tastes.
Marcel Danesi has offered a more recent semiotic account of the social codes of youth subcultures in Canada Danesi b. Non-verbal codes which regulate a 'sensory regime' are of particular interest.
Within particular cultural contexts there are, for instance, largely inexplicit 'codes of looking' which regulate how people may look at other people including taboos on certain kinds of looking.
Such codes tend to retreat to transparency when the cultural context is one's own. People have to look in order to be polite, but not to look at the wrong people or in the wrong place, e.
In Luo in Kenya one should not look at one's mother-in-law; in Nigeria one should not look at a high-status person; amongst some South American Indians during conversation one should not look at the other person; in Japan one should look at the neck, not the face; and so on Argyle The duration of the gaze is also culturally variable: In contact cultures too little gaze is seen as insincere, dishonest or impolite whilst in non-contact cultures too much gaze 'staring' is seen as threatening, disrespectful and insulting Argyle; Argyle Within the bounds of the cultural conventions, people who avoid one's gaze may be seen as nervous, tense, evasive and lacking in confidence whilst people who look a lot may tend to be seen as friendly and self-confident Argyle Such codes may sometimes be deliberately violated.
In the USA in the s, bigoted white Americans employed a sustained 'hate stare' directed against blacks which was designed to depersonalize the victims Goffman Codes of looking are particularly important in relation to gender differentiation.
One woman reported to a male friend: Brian Pranger reports on his investigation of 'the gay gaze': Gay men are able to subtly communicate their shared worldview by a special gaze that seems to be unique to them Most gay men develop a canny ability to instantly discern from the returned look of another man whether or not he is gay.
The gay gaze is not only lingering, but also a visual probing Almost everyone I interviewed said that they could tell who was gay by the presence or absence of this look. A study by Barnlund in depicted the various parts of the body which informants in the USA and Japan reported had been touched by opposite-sex friends, same-sex friends, their mother and their father Barnlundcited in Argyle The resulting body-maps show major differences in cultural norms in this regard, with body areas available for touch being far more restricted in Japan than in the United States.
An earlier study of American students showed differences in the patterns for males and females in the amount of touching of different areas of the body by the various others Jourardcited in Argyle The students reported that they had been touched most by their mothers and by friends of the opposite sex; their fathers seldom touched more than their hands.
Social codes also govern the frequency of physical contact. Jourard also reported the following contacts per hour in different cities: We will allude to the related work of Edward T Hall on the topic of proximity when we discuss 'modes of address'.
Codes are variable not only between different cultures and social groups but also historically. It would be interesting to know, for instance, whether the frequency of touching in various cities around the world which was reported by Jourard in the s is noticeably different now.Photography “What I like about photographs is that they capture a moment that’s gone forever, impossible to reproduce.” ― Karl Lagerfeld Capturing moments and beautiful things with a single click, is the wonder of a photography.
Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London. We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study Abroad and short courses. Using one image that you feel is representative of the work of a particular photographer, movement or genre, contextually deconstruct the image, in an objective and considered way.
Note: The creative photography ideas listed in this article should not be explored haphazardly within a Photography course, but rather selected purposefully, if appropriate for your topic or theme.
This essay considers what Barthes calls the ‘press photograph’, which he describes as a photograph accompanied by text in the form of a title, caption and possibly an article. Barthes proposes what he calls ‘the photographic paradox’.(4) On face value Barthes perceives the .
Visual design elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of visual design.. The best designers sometimes disregard the principles of design. When they do so, however, there is usually some compensating merit attained at the cost of the violation.