What is Dissociative Identity Disorder? Dissociative Identity Disorder is often, but not always, caused by early child abuse including neglect and the failure to respond to the child. Instead the prolonged trauma causes the different "behavioral states" present from birth to become increasingly dissociated disconnected from each other; over time these develop into alternate identities.
Historical overview Early history References to mental disorders in early Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings show that the physicians and philosophers who contemplated problems of human behaviour regarded mental illnesses as a reflection of the displeasure of the gods or as evidence of demoniac possession.
Only a few realized that individuals with mental illnesses should be treated humanely rather than exorcised, punished, or banished. Certain Greek medical writers, however, notably Hippocrates flourished bceregarded mental disorders as diseases to be understood in terms of disturbed physiology.
He and his followers emphasized natural causes, clinical observation, and brain pathology. Later Greek medical writers, including those who practiced in imperial Romeprescribed treatments for mental illness, including a quiet environmentwork, and the use of drugs such as the purgative hellebore.
It is probable that most people with psychoses during ancient times were cared for by their families and that those who were thought to be dangerous to themselves or others were detained at home by relatives or by hired keepers. Hippocrates, Roman bust copied from a Greek original, c.
At least some of those who were deemed insane were looked after by the religious orders, who offered care for the sick generally. The empirical and quasi-scientific Greek tradition in medicine was maintained not by the Europeans but by the Muslim Arabs, who are usually credited with the establishment of asylums for the mentally ill in the Middle East as early as the 8th century.
In medieval Europe in general it seems that the mentally ill were allowed their freedom, provided they were not regarded as dangerous. The founding of the first hospital in Europe devoted entirely to the care of the mentally ill probably occurred in Valencia, Spain, in —09, though this has also been said of a hospital established in Granada in — From the 17th century onward in Europe, there was a growing tendency to isolate deviant people, including the mentally ill, from the rest of society.
Thus, the mentally ill were confined together with the disabled, vagrants, and delinquents. Those regarded as violent were often chained to the walls of prisons and were treated in a barbarous and inhumane way. In the 17th and 18th centuries the development of European medicine and the rise of empirical methods of medical-scientific inquiry were paralleled by an improvement in public attitudes toward the mentally ill.
By the end of the 18th century, concern over the care of the mentally ill had become so great among educated people in Europe and North America that governments were forced to act. Chains and shackles were removed, and dungeons were replaced by sunny rooms; patients were also permitted to exercise on the hospital grounds.
Among other reformers were British Quaker layman William Tukewho established the York Retreat for the humane care of the mentally ill inand the physician Vincenzo Chiarugi, who published a humanitarian regime for his hospital in Florence in In the midth century Dorothea Dix led a campaign to increase public awareness of the inhumane conditions that prevailed in American mental hospitals.
Her efforts led to widespread reforms both in the United States and elsewhere. The mental hospital era Many hospitals for the mentally ill were built in the latter half of the 18th century.
Some of them, like the York Retreat in England, were run on humane and enlightened principles, while others, like the York Asylum, gave rise to great scandal because of their brutal methods and filthy conditions.
In the midth century an extensive program of mental hospital building was carried out in North America, Britain, and many of the countries of continental Europe. The hospitals housed poor mental patients, and their aim was to care for these individuals humanely and to relieve their families of the burden.
The approach represented an attempt toward respectful treatment as opposed to neglect or brutalityincluding work, the avoidance of physical methods of restraint, and respect for the individual patient. A widespread belief in the curability of mental illness at this time was a principal motivating factor behind such reform.
The mental hospital era was an age of reform, and there is no doubt that patients were treated much more humanely than in earlier times.
The era produced a large number of segregated institutions in which a much-higher proportion of the mentally ill was confined than previously.Mental disorder, any illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifestations that is associated with either a painful or distressing symptom or an impairment in one or more important areas of functioning.
the dissociative and somatoform disorders—with which they were historically linked.
Yet many practitioners continue to use the broad conceptualization of neuroses as a useful framework for classifying the anxiety, dissociative, and somatoform disorders. Dissociative disorder treatment is often required when severe dissociative disorder symptoms, such as amnesia or alternate personalities, are present.
Treatment for dissociative disorders may include hospitalization, psychotherapy and medication. But the good news is, the prognosis for those with a. Received extensive medical treatment for as a child.
Experienced family problems or abuse in childhood. Carry a grudge against the medical profession. Have worked as a nurse, laboratory technician, or medical aide. Have an underlying personality problem, such as extreme dependence. Hence understanding somatoform disorders is of paramount importance, especially so in developing countries like India.
This paper discusses the history and evolution of the concept of somatization and somatoform disorders, etiological considerations, classification, assessment, diagnosis and . Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional, psychological and behavioral disorders.