See Article History Crusades, military expeditions, beginning in the late 11th centurythat were organized by western European Christians in response to centuries of Muslim wars of expansion. Their objectives were to check the spread of Islamto retake control of the Holy Land in the eastern Mediterraneanto conquer pagan areas, and to recapture formerly Christian territories; they were seen by many of their participants as a means of redemption and expiation for sins. Betweenwhen the First Crusade was launched, andwhen the Latin Christians were finally expelled from their kingdom in Syriathere were numerous expeditions to the Holy Land, to Spainand even to the Baltic ; the Crusades continued for several centuries after Crusading declined rapidly during the 16th century with the advent of the Protestant Reformation and the decline of papal authority.
Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templarthe Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers. These groups defended the Holy Land and protected pilgrims traveling to and from the region.
These groups departed for Byzantium in August In the first major clash between the Crusaders and Muslims, Turkish forces crushed the invading Europeans at Cibotus. Another group of Crusaders, led by the notorious Count Emicho, carried out a series of massacres of Jews in various towns in the Rhineland indrawing widespread outrage and causing a major crisis in Jewish-Christian relations.
When the four main armies of Crusaders arrived in ConstantinopleAlexius insisted that their leaders swear an oath of loyalty to him and recognize his authority over any land regained from the Turks, as well as any other territory they might conquer.
All but Bohemond resisted taking the oath. The city surrendered in late June.
The Fall of Jerusalem Despite deteriorating relations between the Crusaders and Byzantine leaders, the combined force continued its march through Anatolia, capturing the great Syrian city of Antioch in June Second Crusade Having achieved their goal in an unexpectedly short period of time after the First Crusade, many of the Crusaders departed for home.
To govern the conquered territory, those who remained established four large western settlements, or Crusader states, in Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch and Tripoli. After Louis and Conrad managed to assemble their armies at Jerusalem, they decided to attack the Syrian stronghold of Damascus with an army of some 50, the largest Crusader force yet.
The combined Muslim forces dealt a humiliating defeat to the Crusaders, decisively ending the Second Crusade. Nur al-Din added Damascus to his expanding empire in InSaladin began a major campaign against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
His troops virtually destroyed the Christian army at the battle of Hattin, taking back the important city along with a large amount of territory. From the recaptured city of Jaffa, Richard reestablished Christian control over some of the region and approached Jerusalem, though he refused to lay siege to the city.
In SeptemberRichard and Saladin signed a peace treaty that reestablished the Kingdom of Jerusalem though without the city of Jerusalem and ended the Third Crusade. In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople, and the Fourth Crusade ended with the devastating Fall of Constantinoplemarked by a bloody conquest, looting and near-destruction of the magnificent Byzantine capital later that year.
Final Crusades Throughout the remainder of the 13th century, a variety of Crusades aimed not so much to topple Muslim forces in the Holy Land but to combat any and all of those seen as enemies of the Christian faith.
The Albigensian Crusade aimed to root out the heretical Cathari or Albigensian sect of Christianity in France, while the Baltic Crusades sought to subdue pagans in Transylvania.
The movement never reached the Holy Land.The medieval crusades in the Middle East and Europe - Warfare, Arms, Armour, Defenses, open battles and castle sieges, armour, weapons and military technology of the Middle Ages.
According to tradition, the history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and his teachings (c.
4 BC – c. AD 30) and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.
The Church considers its bishops to be the successors to Jesus's apostles and the Church's leader, the Bishop of Rome (also known as the Pope) to be the sole successor to.
The Crusades were expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny.. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises.
Medieval writers use the terms crux (pro cruce transmarina, Charter of , cited by Du Cange s.v.
According to tradition, the history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and his teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30) and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus. The Church considers its bishops to be the successors to Jesus's apostles and the Church's leader, the Bishop of Rome (also known as the Pope) to be the sole successor to. CHURCH HISTORY Christian Jihad: The Crusades and Killing in the Name of Christ By Craig von Buseck kaja-net.com Contributing Writer. kaja-net.com-- Craig von Buseck: You have a book called 'Christian Jihad'.I find that to be a fascinating subject because there seems to be a lot of ignorance about Christian history. The Real History of the Crusades. The crusades are quite possibly the most misunderstood event in European history. Most of what passes for public knowledge about .
crux), croisement. The Crusades are one of the most misunderstood events in Western and Church history. The very word “crusades” conjures negative images in our modern world of bloodthirsty and greedy European nobles embarked on a conquest of peaceful Muslims.
The Crusades are considered by . They are supposed to have been the epitome of self-righteousness and intolerance, a black stain on the history of the Catholic Church in particular and Western civilization in general.
A breed of proto-imperialists, the Crusaders introduced Western aggression to the peaceful Middle East and then deformed the enlightened Muslim culture, leaving it in ruins. Larry Wayne Thomas Jr. CHHI B06 Paper 3 The Crusades The Crusades were a series of wars, waged by men who wore on their garments the badge of the Cross as a pledge binding them to rescue the Holy Land and the Sepulcher of Christ from the unbeliever.1 Many Christians have debated whether or .