Progressive Form present participle I am being, etc. We must choose carefully among these various forms when selecting the proper verb to go with our subject. Singular subjects require singular verbs; plural subjects require plural verbs. That's usually an easy matter.
It hath They have Formerly, particularly in the Old English period, the English language had a far greater degree of verb inflection than it does now other Germanic languages generally retain a greater variety of inflected forms than English does.
Some of the forms used in Early Modern English have now fallen out of use, but are still encountered in old writers and texts e. Shakespearethe King James Bible and in archaisms. This was used in some dialects rather than the modern -s, e.
In some verbs, a shortened form -th appears: The forms hath and doth are found in some proverbs " Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned ", " The lady doth protest too much ". Another set of forms are associated with the archaic second person singular pronoun thouwhich often have the ending -est, pronounced as a full syllable, e.
In some verbs, a shortened form -st appears: In the case of the verb be, such forms included art present tensewast pastwert past subjunctive and beest present subjunctive; pronounced as two syllables.
In all other verbs, the past tense is formed by the base past tense form of the word e. Modal verbs except must also have -t or -st added to their form, e.
For example, several such forms as well as other archaic forms such as yea for "yes", thy for "your", and mine enemies for "my enemies" appear in Psalm 23 from the King James Bible: He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: He restoreth my soul: Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of deathI will fear no evil: Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: Syntactic constructions[ edit ] Expressing tenses, aspects and moods[ edit ] Apart from the simple past tense described above, English verbs do not have synthetic inflected forms for particular tensesaspects or moods.
However, there are a number of periphrastic multi-word constructions with verb forms that serve to express tense-like or aspect-like meanings; these constructions are commonly described as representing certain verb tenses or aspects in English language teaching they are often simply called tenses.
More detail can be found in the article Uses of English verb forms. Simple and progressive[ edit ] The progressive or continuous aspect is expressed with a form of be together with the present participle of the verb. Thus present progressive present continuous constructions take forms like am writing, is writing, are writing, while the past progressive past continuous, also called imperfect is was writing, were writing.
There is a progressive infinitive to be writing and a progressive subjunctive be writing. Other progressive forms, made with compound forms of be, are described below. The basic present and past tenses of the verb are called simple present present simple and simple past past simpleto distinguish them from progressive or other compound forms.
Thus the simple present of the above verb is write or writes, and the simple past also called preterite is wrote. Perfect[ edit ] The perfect aspect is expressed with a form of the auxiliary have together with the past participle of the verb.
Thus the present perfect is have written or has written, and the past perfect pluperfect is had written. A perfect subjunctive have written is also sometimes used. Future and conditional perfect forms are given below.
Future and conditional[ edit ] What is often called the future tense of English is formed using the auxiliary will.
The simple future is will write, the future progressive continuous is will be writing, the future perfect is will have written, and the future perfect progressive continuous is will have been writing.
Traditionally though now usually in formal English only shall is used rather than will in the first person singular and plural; see shall and will. The conditionalor " future-in-the-past ", forms are made analogously to these future forms, using would and should in place of will and shall.
Expressing passive voice[ edit ] The passive voice in English is normally expressed with a form of the copula verb be or sometimes get together with the past participle of the main verb.
In this context be is not a stative verb, so it may occur in progressive forms.
The house was built last year.Click Mode 1/2/3 to change the number of verb forms you must write.: Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3: Type the verb form in the box and then press Enter.: Click the gray arrow top right to go to the next verb.
Irregular verb definition for 'to Read', including the base form, past simple, past participle, 3rd person singular, present participle / gerund. Irregular verb definition for 'to Read', including the base form, past simple, past participle, 3rd person singular, present participle / gerund.
Verbs and Verbals: Definitions and Functions of Basic Sentence Parts. Past Perfect Tense. Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action.
This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb.. By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended. Future Perfect Tense. The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements: the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb.
The past participle of a regular verb is base +ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. Some irregular verbs have the same past simple and past participle forms, but a different infinitive. Common English irregular verbs This is a list of over common English irregular verbs, with their past simple and past participle forms.