Most especially my deepest gratitude goes to the people of Igusa. They showed me great kindness and support, welcoming me into their homes and sharing their lives with me.
Cold Warriors Andrew J. Rotter Architects of the conflict that gripped the world for nearly fifty years, cold warriors were the men, and few women, who gave shape to the ongoing conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union from to They built the Cold War 's institutions, forged its diplomacy, oversaw its military flare-ups and its diplomatic stand-downs, and supplied its fierce rhetoric and its silent espionage.
In the West, the so-called free world, cold warriors were usually well-born and well educated. In revolutionary societies and communist countries, high class standing was no asset for a leader, so cold warriors either came from humble stock or claimed that they did.
The most prominent cold warriors were men of power—commanders of great armies, of the masses, of economic might, of words and ideas. Cold warriors were frequently messianic in their convictions, believing they represented the one best political, economic, and social system.
They were serious men, disinclined to joke about their work and for the most part innocent even of a sense of irony about it; with the exception perhaps of their hubris, they masked their emotions, though they could never fully erase them. Cold warriors were often pragmatic men, able to calculate their nations' interests and if necessary to negotiate with their adversaries in order to protect those interests.
Still, despite their pragmatism cold warriors contained within their bodies the cells of history and ideology that compelled them to the contest, in the belief that they were defending their nations' values or in the hope of spreading their values to others beyond their borders.
Cold warriors lived most obviously in the United States and the Soviet Unionbut because the Cold War enveloped the world its warriors were everywhere. They included the presidents of the United Statesfrom Harry S. Truman to George H. There were members of the intelligence community J.
Edgar Hoover, Edward G. The ideologue Andrei Zhdanov was a cold warrior of the first magnitude. Soviet diplomats carried out their superiors' orders but contributed as well their own mite to the conflict; among them were the longtime foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the ambassador to the United States Andrei Gromyko.
Lavrenti Beria, head of Stalin's secret policemaintained a bloodstained vigil against all forms of Cold War heterodoxy. Outside the United States and the Soviet Union, cold warriors fought their own battles in the shadows cast by their powerful allies. Their Cold Wars were similar to the principal super-power conflict in their ideological and geopolitical purposes, but different to the extent that they were influenced by histories that preceded the Cold War and in some ways transcended it, and also different because local concerns pressed down upon a broad Cold War foundation, reshaping it as wood construction forms mold wet concrete.
In Canada there was Lester Pearson prime minister— France had Charles de Gaulle whose Cold War had an overwhelmingly Gallic flavorSouth Africa Hendrik Verwoerd prime minister —, who invoked the Soviet threat in order to defend white supremacy in his countryand the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos president —who traded his support for U.
There were thousands of cold warriors; the four profiled here were selected because they represented different sides of the conflict and because, taken together, their influence spanned nearly the length of the Cold War.
Joseph Stalin was dictator of the Soviet Union from the late s until his death in Dean Acheson was U. Mao Zedong led the communists to victory in China in and became the nation's supreme ruler for nearly thirty years.
And Ronald Reagan, U. All of these men made decisions that had enormous consequences for the world in which they lived and for the world inherited by the next generation of leaders.
Strenuous as it was to fight the Cold War, it proved even harder to unmake it. Stalin was a man people underestimated. He was short five feet, four inches tall and stocky, with a face pitted by smallpox and a left arm bent permanently by a childhood accident.
He mumbled or talked so quietly that he was hard to hear; possibly he was embarrassed at his poor grasp of Russian, which he spoke with an accent. On the eve of the October revolution, one of Stalin's colleagues on the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet wrote that he gave "the impression … of a grey blur which flickered obscurely and left no trace.
There really is nothing more to be said about him. He's got will-power, and he's going to be on top of the pile some day. His family name was Dzhugashvili.
Joseph would take the name Stalin, meaning "man of steel," in the early s. Possibly he was illegitimate. His father, or the man who raised him, was a cobbler, while his mother was a domestic servant.Also described in: W.K. Rose, Wyndham Lewis at Cornell: A Review of the Notes, synopsis, philosophical thesis, and partial draft of a proposed novel.
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