History of Chechnya Chechnya within Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union[ edit ] Following long local resistance during the — Caucasian WarImperial Russian forces defeated the Chechens and annexed their lands in the s. The official pretext  was punishment for collaboration with the invading German forces during the — insurgency in Chechnyadespite tens of thousands of Chechens and Ingush being aligned to the Soviet Union and fighting against the Nazis, and despite 50 Chechens receiving the highest military award in the Soviet Union e.
Tens of thousands of civilians were killed and overpersons displaced since the conflict began.
The origins of the conflict are complex. Relations between Russia and the people of Chechnya have long been contentious, dating to the period of Russian expansion in the Caucasus in the 19th Century.
Since their forced annexation to the Russian empire, the Chechens have never willingly accepted Russian rule. During the Russian Civil Warthe Chechens declared their sovereignty until the Red Army suppressed them in Located on the north slope of the Caucasus Mountains within kilometers of the Caspian Sea, Chechnya is strategically vital to Russia for two reasons.
First, access routes to both the Black Sea and the Russian chechen war Sea go from the center of the federation through Chechnya.
Second, vital Russian oil and gas pipeline connections with Kazakstan and Azerbaijan also run through Chechnya. The declaration of full independence issued in by the Chechen government of Dudayev led to civil war in that republic, and several Russian-backed attempts to overthrow Dudayev failed in and In the summer ofthe Russian Government intensified its charges against the government of secessionist President Dudayev, accusing it of repressing political dissent, of corruption, and of involvement in international criminal activities.
Chechnya had become an outpost of organized crime, gun-running and drug smuggling. Several armed opposition groups financially and militarily supported by Russian government entities sought to overthrow President Dudayev.
In August they bombed a telephone station and the Moscow-Baku railroad line. The Dudayev government blamed the acts on the political opposition and introduced a state of emergency, followed in September by martial law. Restrictions included a curfew, limits on exit and entry procedures, and restrictions on travel by road in some areas.
The opposition launched a major offensive on 26 November with the covert support of "volunteers" from several elite regular Russian army units. Russian military officials initially denied any official involvement in the conflict.
The operation failed to unseat Dudayev. By December Russian military forces were actively working to overthrow the Dudayev regime. Having relied on clandestine measures to remove Dudayev, detailed planning for a wide-scale conventional military operation did not begin until early December.
After a decision of unclear origin in the Yeltsin administration, three divisions of Russian armor, pro-Russian Chechen infantry, and internal security troops -- a force including units detailed from the regular armed forces -- invaded Chechnya on December The objective was a quick victory leading to pacification and reestablishment of a pro-Russian government.
The result, however, was a long series of military operations bungled by the Russians and stymied by the traditionally rugged guerrilla forces of the Chechen separatists.
Russian military aircraft bombed both military and civilian targets in Groznyy, the capital of the republic. Air strikes continued through the month of December and into January, causing extensive damage and heavy civilian casualties.
According to press reports, there were up to 4, detonations an hour at the height of the winter campaign against Groznyy. Beyond the large number of civilians injured and killed, most residential and public buildings in Groznyy, including hospitals and an orphanage, were destroyed.
The Russian Government announced on December 28 that Russian ground forces had begun an operation to "liberate" Groznyy one district at a time and disarm the "illegal armed groupings. Troops who were sent to Chechnya had in many cases only just arrived for their mandatory conscription service.
As a result, they had only been through about half of what U. As a result, few tankers were trained on any of the systems they would have to fight in, and even trained ones were assigned to the wrong tanks.
Crews were thrown together and had to train and become familiar with each other during the road march to Groznyy.
All of this was compounded by two major errors at the top.Chechnya: Chechnya, republic in southwestern Russia, situated on the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus range. Chechnya is bordered by Russia proper on the north, Dagestan republic on the east and southeast, the country of Georgia on the southwest, and Ingushetiya republic on the west.
The First Chechen War (Russian: Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Russian: Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния), First Russian-Chechen war, or officially (from Russian point of view) Armed conflict in the Chechen Republic and on bordering territories of the Russian Federation (Russian: Вооруженный.
When the Soviet Union collapsed in , Chechnya declared independence from Russia. For three years, armed rebels ran Chechnya in defiance of Moscow. In , Russian President Boris Yeltsin launched a poorly planned .
Note: This record contains a list of the polities that emerged on the territory of the former Russian Empire during the Russian civil war from to , in Far East to These polities include (a) semi-autonomous regional Bolshevik "Red" Soviet Republics and (b) "White" (anti-Bolshevik) Russian central governments or autonomous regional polities as well as (c) secessionist or.
The First Chechen War, also known as the War in Chechnya, was a conflict between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of . The first and second Chechen wars murdered Russian democracy in its cradle, for when the cannons sing the people thirst for blood and opponents of government become traitors to the nation; elections lose their meaning and .