Write about afforestation vs reforestation

Making the transition to the third era of natural resources managementby Nathan L. This is an ideal paper for probing the psychological anguish that accompanies the pragmatic shift in conservation paradigms forced by rapid climate change. The author has worked in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park for 35 years, and he wrote this essay as a contribution to the National Park Service Centennial in This third era promises to overturn not only some of our most fundamental assumptions about parks and protected areas, but also many of the ideals we currently hold dear.

Write about afforestation vs reforestation

Making the transition to the third era of natural resources managementby Nathan L. This is an ideal paper for probing the psychological anguish that accompanies the pragmatic shift in conservation paradigms forced by rapid climate change.

The author has worked in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park for 35 years, and he wrote this essay as a contribution to the National Park Service Centennial in This third era promises to overturn not only some of our most fundamental assumptions about parks and protected areas, but also many of the ideals we currently hold dear.

A common initial reaction to the diverse challenges of this transition is to feel overwhelmed and adrift; I have certainly had such feelings myself.

But these feelings carry the risk of reducing our effectiveness as resource stewards right when we can least afford to be less effective: Here I briefly examine some of the challenges of this new era, focusing on those that can most often elicit feelings of discouragement.

Impacts and Carrying Capacity

Recovery from this despair was gradual, with no flipping of light switches. Rather than abrupt epiphanies, I started to slowly piece together some possible new visions of the future of natural resources management in national parks. I eventually came to accept the loss of some of the ideals of the Leopold era, and began write about afforestation vs reforestation them with new ideals that were better aligned to an era of rapid global changes.

I usually hear three classes of argument against intervention: Among legal constraints on intervention, the Wilderness Act is known for setting an especially high bar, making it a particularly good example to consider. But the Wilderness Act certainly allows for intervention, and we have several examples of successful intervention in wilderness by natural resource managers, ranging from mechanical forest thinning to additions of limestone sand to counteract acidic deposition.

Additionally, a recent legal review of climate change adaptation in the context of the Wilderness Act concluded that while the act 'place[s] a thumb on the scale in favor of restraint,' natural resource managers can be confident that 'the vast majority of management options are available Existing law does not preclude our ability to intervene.

I know of no way to accomplish this except through deliberate reprioritization, in which planning for the third era rises on our lists, displacing some tasks that may be urgent but less important to the long-term viability of national parks.

It is normal to feel overwhelmed, at least initially, at the prospect of managing national parks and their natural resources in an era of rapid and unprecedented global changes.

Adaptation and Mitigation

At a personal level, many of us need to grieve the passing of the Leopold era and the loss of some of its ideals, and then become secure in knowing that the broad outlines of a new vision are beginning to emerge.

Indeed, each of us can contribute to the evolution of this new vision. We do not need to figure everything out at once; we can start with small experimental steps, learning as we go. Responding to habitat shifts resulting from climate change will be one of the considerations for the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison national forests as the Forest Service embarks on a new forest treatment project over the next eight to 12 years.

Its new Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response project is a response to aboutacres where spruce have died from beetle infestation on the forests, andacres that have been affected by what's called Sudden Aspen Decline, over a decade. The Forest Service expects mortality in spruce stands "to continue at relatively high levels for several years to come," according to the final environmental impact statement for the project.

In the detection of new areas of aspen decline dropped considerably, but stands already affected continue to decline, and the Forest Service expects the aspen and spruce problems to be exacerbated in the future by climate change. While the new forest treatment plan is intended to also address other goals like reducing safety hazards such as falling trees and increased wildfire danger, improving forest resiliency is a key goal.

write about afforestation vs reforestation

That includes trying to make the forest resilient in the face of a changing climate. He said quite a few outcomes of the management response project "could help adapt the forest to a warmer and potentially drier climate.

Where there's spruce-fir forest, it might be crazy to start planting pinon-juniper now, even if models say it would be good pinon-juniper habitat by the end of the century, he said.

Also by Dennis Webb, 6 August"Cycle of decline:A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.

ASSISTED COLONIZATION is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction of populations of the focal species..

WOA! - Impacts and Carrying Capacity

ECOLOGICAL REPLACEMENT is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function..

See the 3-fold chart immediately below for distinctions between three forms of. dissertation subjects carbethoxymethylene triphenylphosphorane synthesis essay beowulf three battles essay about myself peut choisir sa vie dissertation abstract. The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats.

Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.

In contrast to command-and-control environmental regulations such as best available technology (BAT) standards and government subsidies, cap and trade (CAT) programs are a type of flexible environmental regulation.

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